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14 Oct

The debate surrounding the efficiency and sustainability of long dieting periods with smaller caloric deficits versus shorter dieting periods with larger deficits has garnered much attention in the bodybuilding and fitness communities. Central to this discussion is the phenomenon of metabolic adaptation, a complex set of physiological changes where the body reduces its metabolic rate to conserve energy. One key factor in metabolic adaptation is the role of the thyroid gland, specifically the production of thyroid hormones T3 and T4, which are crucial for regulating metabolism. This article will delve into both dieting approaches and their effects on metabolism, thyroid function and muscle mass providing insight into which may be the optimal strategy for body composition.

Shorter Dieting Periods with Larger Deficits

While shorter dieting periods with larger caloric deficits offer the appeal of quick results, the metabolic implications can be more complex. A significant caloric deficit sends a signal to the body, via the pituitary gland to the thyroid, to conserve energy, activating survival mechanisms that reduce metabolic rate, sometimes referred to as “starvation mode.” This reduction in metabolic rate can make it increasingly difficult to continue losing weight and may lead to a plateau with further reduction is calories, increasing the rate of muscle loss.

Even after the dieting period is over, the body may continue to operate at this reduced metabolic rate for longer periods of time, another drawback of Metabolic Adaptation. This adaptation can make weight maintenance and future weight loss efforts more challenging. According to a study published in the “International Journal of Obesity,” participants of “The Biggest Loser” competition experienced a significant and persistent drop in their resting metabolic rate, even six years after the end of the competition [1].

For those in long dieting phases like Contest Prep, it’s crucial to be aware of this metabolic slowdown. The metabolic adaptations that occur due to larger caloric deficits can make it challenging to achieve the desired physique within the competition timeline. Therefore, if opting for this approach, it’s essential to have contingency plans in place to counterbalance the potential negative metabolic effects.

Long Dieting Periods with Smaller Deficits

Opting for longer dieting periods with smaller caloric deficits offers some advantages, primarily in the form of less drastic metabolic adaptations. While still inducing a caloric deficit sufficient for weight loss, smaller deficits are less likely to trigger the severe hormonal responses that larger deficits can. This makes it easier to maintain a more stable metabolic rate over the long term.

A 2009 study found that moderate caloric restriction did not produce the same extent of metabolic slowdown as experienced in more extreme caloric restriction [2]. Additionally, smaller deficits over an extended period offer the advantage of muscle preservation. According to a review in the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, adequate protein intake alongside a moderate caloric deficit can optimize muscle protein synthesis, aiding in the retention of lean muscle mass during weight loss [3].

For those in the Off-season or focusing on Lifestyle changes, this approach provides a more sustainable pathway for long-term metabolic health and easier dieting phase, to include preps. It allows for greater flexibility in dietary choices, making it easier to adhere to in the long run. However, it’s important to note that the slower rate of weight loss might not be suitable for those on a tight Contest Prep schedule.

In the realm of long dieting periods with smaller caloric deficits, it’s crucial to discuss not just metabolic implications but also psychological factors. Research indicates that more extended, moderate dieting phases can be psychologically easier to adhere to, increasing long-term success [4]. Moreover, the flexibility in caloric intake means athletes are less likely to feel deprived or restricted, making it more likely for them to maintain good nutritional habits.

Another important note is the potential for more effective nutrient partitioning. When the body is not in an extreme caloric deficit, it may more effectively allocate nutrients toward muscle repair and growth, offering a dual benefit of fat loss and muscle retention [5].

From an endocrine standpoint, smaller deficits over longer periods are less likely to elicit stress responses, such as increased cortisol levels, which can further sabotage muscle retention and metabolic rate [6].

The Endocrine Impact of Larger Caloric Deficits

A critical consideration in the context of larger caloric deficits and metabolism is the influence on the endocrine system, specifically the interaction between the pituitary and thyroid glands. When confronted with a significant caloric deficit, the pituitary gland often decreases the secretion of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH). This reduction can result in suppressed production of thyroid hormones T3 and T4, which are vital for maintaining metabolic rate [7].

A study in the “American Journal of Physiology” illustrates that even short-term caloric restriction can significantly alter T3 levels, indicating immediate metabolic adaptations [8]. Another study published in the “Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism” found that low-calorie diets led to a substantial decrease in T3 levels, impacting metabolic rate [9]. These changes can be more severe with larger deficits than with smaller deficits sustained over a longer period. The larger caloric deficits can lead to a more significant reduction in thyroid hormones T3 and T4, which in turn affects metabolic rate. This is often observed as part of the body’s adaptive mechanisms to conserve energy during periods of significant caloric restriction [7[8][9].

Metabolic Considerations

Both dieting strategies have unique metabolic consequences. Longer periods with smaller deficits tend to have a less pronounced effect on the metabolic rate and high muscle retention, while shorter periods with larger deficits can lead to a more rapid metabolic slowdown, and less muscle retention. The latter may make subsequent Contest Preps more challenging, and time between prep longer due to the lingering effect of Metabolic Adaption resulting from an excessive deficit.


When choosing between long dieting periods with smaller deficits and shorter periods with larger deficits, consider not just the speed of weight loss but also the long-term metabolic consequences and the ability to preserve muscle mass. Both approaches have pros and cons, and the choice should be tailored to individual metabolic responses, the timeframe available, and the goals set for stage appearance or future preps.


[1] Fothergill, E., Guo, J., & Howard, L. (2016). Persistent metabolic adaptation 6 years after “The Biggest Loser” competition. International Journal of Obesity.

[2] Redman LM, Heilbronn LK, Martin CK, de Jonge L, Williamson DA, Delany JP, Ravussin E; Pennington CALERIE Team. Metabolic and behavioral compensations in response to caloric restriction: implications for the maintenance of weight loss. PLoS One. 2009;4(2)

[3] Helms, E. R., Zinn, C., Rowlands, D. S., & Brown, S. R. (2014). A systematic review of dietary protein during caloric restriction in resistance trained lean athletes: a case for higher intakes. Nutrition & Metabolism.

[4] Byrne S, McLean N. Elite athletes: effects of the pressure to be thin. J Sci Med Sport. 2002 Jun;5(2):80-94.

[5] Aragon, A. A., & Schoenfeld, B. J. (2013). Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window? Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition.

[6] Hill, E. E., Zack, E., Battaglini, C., Viru, M., Viru, A., & Hackney, A. C. (2008). Exercise and circulating cortisol levels: the intensity threshold effect. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation.

[7] Samuels, M.H. (2008). Effects of variations in physiological cortisol levels on thyrotropin secretion in subjects with adrenal insufficiency: a clinical research center study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

[8] Klieverik, L.P., Coomans, C.P., Endert, E., Sauerwein, H.P., Havekes, L.M., Voshol, P.J., Rensen, P.C.N., Romijn, J.A., & Kalsbeek, A. (2009). Thyroid Hormone Effects on Whole-Body Energy Homeostasis and Tissue-Specific Fatty Acid Uptake In Vivo. American Journal of Physiology.

[9] Spaulding, S.W., Chopra, I.J., Sherwin, R.S., & Lyall, S.S. (1976). Effect of caloric restriction and dietary composition of serum T3 and reverse T3 in man. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

23 Aug

The aftermath of a prolonged dieting phase presents a crucial juncture for those seeking to regain lost muscle mass. Amidst the myriad advice circulating, the concept of rapid weight gain to reignite a sluggish metabolism often takes the spotlight. However, delving into the scientific intricacies of post-diet muscle rebuilding unveils a nuanced narrative. This comprehensive exploration delves deep into the complexities, dispels myths, and unveils the compelling rationale behind a gradual approach, backed by scientific evidence.

Gaining weight too quickly after dieting can potentially have negative effects on metabolic health. Often referred to as “weight regain” or “weight cycling,” it can impact various aspects of your body’s metabolism and overall health. Here’s how:

  1. Metabolic Adaptation: During a period of dieting, especially if it’s prolonged or severe, the body tends to adapt by reducing its metabolic rate. This means your body burns fewer calories at rest. When you suddenly start gaining weight rapidly, your body might still be in a state of reduced metabolism, making it easier to accumulate excess body fat.
  2. Fat Distribution: Rapid weight gain can lead to an unhealthy distribution of fat, with a higher likelihood of visceral fat accumulation. Visceral fat, which accumulates around internal organs, is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.
  3. Insulin Sensitivity: Rapid weight gain can lead to reduced insulin sensitivity, which is a precursor to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This occurs when cells become less responsive to the effects of insulin, resulting in higher blood sugar levels.
  4. Hormonal Changes: Rapid weight regain after dieting can disrupt hormonal balance, including hormones such as Leptin and Ghrelin that regulate appetite/hunger, and T3/T4 that regulate metabolism. This can lead to increased feelings of hunger and potential overeating.
  5. Psychological Factors: Rapid weight gain can also have psychological impacts. If you’ve worked hard to lose weight and then see rapid gains, it might negatively affect your self-esteem and mental well-being.


Diving into the science, it’s essential to understand that metabolism is a dynamic interplay of physiological responses that adapt over time. Contrary to popular belief, rapid weight gain post-diet does not guarantee an instant metabolic revival. Metabolic adaptation is a symphony of intricacies that demand a strategic approach.

The thyroid’s role in metabolism cannot be overstated, as it plays a crucial role in regulating the body’s basal metabolic rate (BMR) – the rate at which your body expends energy at rest. When undergoing caloric restriction, such as during dieting, the thyroid’s hormone levels can be significantly affected. This natural response can result in a dampened metabolic rate, where the body conserves energy to adapt to the perceived scarcity of resources. It’s important to note that while the prospect of swift weight gain might seem appealing as a post-diet outcome, emerging scientific insights underscore the importance of a more gradual approach to caloric repletion for optimizing thyroid function and overall metabolic health.

Research has revealed that abruptly increasing caloric intake following a period of dieting can potentially hinder the recovery of the thyroid’s optimal functionality. The thyroid is intricately linked with the body’s metabolic processes, and its hormone production can be influenced by shifts in energy availability. Rapid weight gain can trigger a stress response in the body, which in turn can disrupt the delicate balance of thyroid hormones. This may not only prolong the timeframe required for the thyroid to regain its equilibrium but also potentially impede the overall improvement in metabolic rate that is sought after when transitioning out of a dieting phase. It can also slow the rate of anabolism, the building of muscle.

Quality muscle rebuilding isn’t just about regaining mass; it’s about reclaiming strength and functionality. The myth that rapid weight gain leads to increased muscle mass is flawed. Often, quick weight gain results in disproportionate fat accumulation, masking any muscle gains achieved, and body composition has just as much impact on anabolism as calorie intake. The focus should shift to a gradual approach that supports lean body composition.


In contrast, a more measured and gradual reintroduction of calories allows the thyroid to adjust more smoothly and effectively. This approach provides the body with a chance to adapt to changing energy levels without invoking the stress reactions that can occur with sudden caloric surges. As the thyroid is given the time and resources it needs to recalibrate its hormone production, the restoration of a healthy metabolic rate becomes a more achievable goal. By nurturing the thyroid’s recovery through a well-paced increase in caloric intake, individuals can enhance their chances of experiencing a sustainable and progressive improvement in overall metabolic function and improved muscle growth.

Harmonizing hormones is key to sustainable progress. Gradual weight gain maintains a balanced hormonal environment, facilitating effective muscle rebuilding. Hormones like insulin and cortisol respond more favorably to measured changes, offering a conducive milieu for achieving long-term goals.

In essence, the journey from caloric restriction to a revitalized metabolism involves more than just focusing on the end goal of weight gain. It requires a holistic understanding of the thyroid’s pivotal role in this process. Embracing a patient and gradual approach to refeeding post-dieting can lead to a more harmonious restoration of thyroid function, ultimately fostering a healthier metabolic rate and long-term well-being.


The connection between cardiovascular exercise and thyroid function further emphasizes the intricate relationship between physical activity and metabolic health. Engaging in regular cardio workouts has been associated with positive effects on thyroid hormone production and metabolic rate. The belief that increased cardio activity permits greater food consumption due to improved thyroid function holds some validity, but the benefits are limited and easily misunderstood.

However, it’s important to acknowledge the concept of metabolic adaptation when discussing the effects of increased cardio on thyroid function and metabolism. The body is remarkably adaptable and strives to find equilibrium in response to changes in energy expenditure. As cardio activity is intensified or prolonged, the body will adapt by becoming more efficient at utilizing energy. For example, if you stop all cardio for a few weeks, with no other changes, weight gain will likely return. While this adaptability is a testament to the body’s survival mechanisms, it also implies that the initial boost in thyroid function and metabolism achieved through increased cardio is limited and can eventually be counterproductive.

Furthermore, the impact of excessive cardio on muscle mass is another facet to be mindful of. While cardio exercise can be beneficial for burning calories and supporting cardiovascular health, it may compromise muscle tissue. This is particularly pertinent for those aiming to preserve or build muscle, especially in the next dieting phase. Striking the right balance between cardio and resistance training, along with sufficient protein intake, is crucial for maintaining lean muscle mass and preventing potential muscle loss that can occur with excessive cardio.

For those with a primary goal of building muscle and achieving a sustainable improvement in metabolic health, patience becomes a virtue. Embracing a measured approach to weight gain, minimizing cardio, and nurturing the body’s innate ability to adapt can yield more lasting results. By fostering a harmonious relationship between exercise, nutrition, and rest, individuals can embark on a journey that not only enhances muscle growth but also lays the foundation for a well-functioning metabolism and improved rate of muscle growth.


In the realm of post-diet weight regain, the scientific landscape continues to lean more towards a gradual approach. The allure of rapid weight gain may tempt, but the true art lies in orchestrating a strategy that respects the body’s intricate recovery mechanisms. Through well-informed decisions and a measured approach, you’re not merely reclaiming lost muscle; you’re optimizing anabolism…embarking on a journey toward sustained long-term success, and improved well-being. Remember, each step toward your goals is a step toward a stronger, healthier you.

NOTE: Chet and Natalie are both IFBB Pros, Judges and Coaches. Interested in working with both Chet and Natalie? learn more about their Coaching Methods and visit their Coaching Plans page.

19 Aug

When aiming to gain muscle, it’s important to remember that supplements should complement a well-balanced diet and a structured workout routine. While supplements can support your efforts, they should not be a substitute for proper nutrition and training. Here are some supplements that are commonly considered for muscle gain, along with a brief explanation of their potential benefits, the first three are critical:

  1. Whey Protein:
    • Whey protein is a fast-digesting protein source that can help provide your muscles with the amino acids they need for recovery and growth after workouts.
    • It can be convenient for ensuring you meet your daily protein intake, especially if your diet doesn’t provide enough protein-rich foods.
  2. Creatine:
    • Creatine is one of the most well-researched supplements for muscle gain and performance.
    • It may enhance your ability to perform high-intensity exercises and increase muscle mass by improving energy production within muscle cells.
  3. Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs):
    • BCAAs, consisting of leucine, isoleucine, and valine, are essential amino acids that play a role in muscle protein synthesis and recovery.
    • They may be beneficial when taken around workouts to help prevent muscle breakdown and support muscle growth.
  4. Beta-Alanine:
    • Beta-alanine is an amino acid that can increase muscle endurance by helping to buffer the build-up of lactic acid during high-intensity exercise.
    • It’s commonly found in pre-workout supplements.
  5. L-Glutamine:
    • Glutamine is an amino acid that plays a role in protein synthesis and immune system function.
    • While more research is needed, some studies suggest it could aid in muscle recovery and reduce muscle soreness.
  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acids:
    • Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and can support overall health.
    • They may indirectly support muscle gain by promoting a healthy environment for muscle growth and recovery.
  7. Multivitamins and Minerals:
    • Ensuring you have an adequate intake of essential vitamins and minerals is crucial for overall health and optimal muscle function.
  8. ZMA (Zinc, Magnesium, Vitamin B6):
    • This combination of minerals and vitamins is often marketed to support muscle recovery and sleep quality.

Supplements aren’t a magical fix, and their impact varies. For effective muscle gain, focus on a balanced diet supplying essential nutrients, stay adequately hydrated for optimal performance, commit to consistent training for progressive growth, prioritize quality sleep for recovery, and embrace individuality. These factors collectively form the bedrock of muscle gain, with supplements complementing your efforts rather than replacing the fundamentals.

As you consider incorporating these effective supplements into your muscle-building regimen, it’s equally crucial to ensure that the products you choose align with high standards of quality and safety. Transitioning from identifying the best supplements to the critical matter of selecting a high-quality product, let’s delve into the essential criteria to bear in mind.

When looking for a high-quality bodybuilding supplement, it’s important to consider factors that ensure both safety and effectiveness. Here’s what you should look for when selecting a supplement:

  1. Transparent Labeling and Ingredients:
    • Choose products that provide a clear and detailed list of ingredients, including their specific dosages.
    • Avoid proprietary blends, as they don’t disclose individual ingredient amounts and can make it hard to judge their effectiveness.
  2. Clinically Studied Ingredients:
    • Look for supplements that contain ingredients backed by scientific research and peer-reviewed studies.
    • Reliable supplements often include ingredients with proven benefits for muscle growth, performance, or recovery.
  3. Third-Party Testing and Certification:
    • Opt for supplements that are tested by third-party organizations for quality, purity, and accuracy of ingredient labeling.
    • Certifications from organizations like NSF International or Informed-Choice indicate that the product has been independently verified.
  4. No Harmful Additives or Fillers:
    • Check for unnecessary additives, fillers, or artificial ingredients. The fewer unnecessary components, the better.
    • Avoid supplements with ingredients that are potentially harmful or banned in competitive sports.
  5. Reputation and Brand Reputation:
    • Choose supplements from reputable and well-established brands known for producing quality products.
    • Research online reviews and customer feedback to get an idea of the product’s effectiveness and the brand’s reliability.
  6. Dosage and Serving Recommendations:
    • Ensure the product provides effective dosages of key ingredients based on research.
    • Follow the recommended serving sizes and usage instructions for best results.
  7. No Unrealistic Claims:
    • Be cautious of supplements that make extreme or unrealistic claims, such as “gain 10 pounds of muscle in a week.”
    • Reputable supplements will provide realistic expectations based on scientific evidence.
  8. Professional Recommendations:
    • Consult with healthcare professionals, registered dietitians, or fitness experts for recommendations based on your specific goals and needs.
    • They can provide personalized guidance and help you choose supplements that align with your overall health and fitness plan.
  9. Avoid Proprietary Blends:
    • As mentioned earlier, proprietary blends hide individual ingredient amounts. It’s best to choose supplements where you know exactly what you’re consuming.
  10. Value for Money:
    • While quality supplements might have a higher price, the value lies in their effectiveness and safety.
    • Compare the cost per serving with the benefits you expect to receive.


Understanding the proper role of supplements is essential in navigating a successful fitness journey. Supplements should be regarded as supportive tools that enhance the foundation you’ve built through a balanced diet and structured workout routine. They are not intended to replace the fundamental pillars of proper nutrition and training.

A balanced diet provides a diverse array of nutrients that contribute to overall health and fuel your workouts. While supplements might fill specific nutrient gaps, they cannot replicate the complex interactions of nutrients found in whole foods. They should be seen as supplementary additions rather than substitutes for the nutrient-rich foods that sustain your body.

Similarly, supplements can play a role in supporting your fitness goals, but they cannot replace the physical effort and discipline required in a structured workout routine. Muscle growth and development are a result of consistent resistance training and allowing adequate time for recovery. Supplements can aid in muscle repair and growth, but they can’t replicate the multifaceted benefits of a well-designed workout plan.

Taking a holistic approach ensures optimal results. Prioritize a diet rich in whole foods that provide a comprehensive spectrum of nutrients. Craft a structured workout regimen that challenges your muscles progressively while allowing them to recover. Integrate restorative sleep and stress management practices to support your body’s natural processes. Supplements can be utilized strategically to enhance this holistic framework, addressing specific needs, but their effectiveness is maximized when combined with a foundation rooted in proper nutrition and consistent training. In essence, supplements are a valuable addition, but they should always complement, not replace, the core principles of a healthy lifestyle.

NOTE: Chet and Natalie are both IFBB Pros, Judges and Coaches. Interested in working with both Chet and Natalie? learn more about their Coaching Methods and visit their Coaching Plans page.

18 Aug

Compound movements are exercises that involve multiple joints and muscle groups working together to perform a coordinated movement. These movements are highly effective for building muscle due to several scientific reasons:

𝐇𝐨𝐫𝐦𝐨𝐧𝐚𝐥 𝐑𝐞𝐬𝐩𝐨𝐧𝐬𝐞: Compound exercises, such as squats, deadlifts, and bench presses, stimulate the release of anabolic hormones like testosterone and growth hormone. These hormones play a critical role in muscle growth and repair.

𝐌𝐮𝐬𝐜𝐥𝐞 𝐀𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐯𝐚𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧: Compound movements engage a larger number of muscle fibers across multiple muscle groups. This high level of muscle activation leads to more significant muscle recruitment and ultimately greater muscle growth.

𝐍𝐞𝐮𝐫𝐨𝐦𝐮𝐬𝐜𝐮𝐥𝐚𝐫 𝐄𝐟𝐟𝐢𝐜𝐢𝐞𝐧𝐜𝐲: Performing compound movements improves the coordination and communication between the nervous system and muscles, allowing you to lift heavier weights, leading to greater muscle tension and growth.

𝐓𝐢𝐦𝐞 𝐄𝐟𝐟𝐢𝐜𝐢𝐞𝐧𝐜𝐲: Compound exercises allow you to work multiple muscle groups in a single movement which helps you achieve a well-rounded workout in less time, making it easier to adhere to a consistent training routine.

𝐏𝐫𝐨𝐠𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐬𝐢𝐯𝐞 𝐎𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐥𝐨𝐚𝐝: opportunity for continuous progressive overload, a key principle for muscle growth. As you progressively increase the weight you lift, your muscles adapt by growing stronger and larger.

𝐂𝐚𝐥𝐨𝐫𝐢𝐜 𝐄𝐱𝐩𝐞𝐧𝐝𝐢𝐭𝐮𝐫𝐞: Compound movements require more energy and burn more calories compared to isolation exercises. The increased caloric expenditure can contribute to muscle growth and fat loss.

𝐒𝐭𝐚𝐛𝐢𝐥𝐢𝐭𝐲 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐂𝐨𝐫𝐞 𝐄𝐧𝐠𝐚𝐠𝐞𝐦𝐞𝐧𝐭: Many require stabilization & core engagement, leading to improved core strength & stability. A strong core is essential for proper posture, injury prevention, and overall strength gains.

Studies and real-world evidence consistently support the effectiveness of compound movements for building muscle. Incorporating a combination of compound and isolation exercises into your training routine can provide a well-rounded approach to maximizing muscle growth and overall strength.

NOTE: Chet and Natalie are both IFBB Pros, Judges and Coaches. Interested in working with both Chet and Natalie? learn more about their Coaching Methods and visit their Coaching Plans page.